we collect data for everything. Virat’s bating averages, stock market fluctuations, pollution levels compared to other cities, and right now as the country struggles through the demonetization experiment everyone has data on how much money is in circulation, how long will it take to print out new notes etc. The world is becoming more and more quantitative and data focused. Whatever information you may have, there are statistics to back it.
Statistics essentially involves putting mathematics to scientific use in the collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
Statisticians use this knowledge to design, collect and interpret data surrounding many different fields from economics, medicine, psychology, marketing public health, biology, even sports, and other field’s statistics plays a vital role in every field of human activity. Statistics has important role in determining the existing position of per capita income, unemployment, population growth rate, housing, medical facilities etc. in a country.
Different area of statistics include crime statistics, census statistics, ecological statistics, medical statistics, education statistics, film statistics, cricket statistics, oil statistics, market statistics, accident statistics, labor statistics, pollution statistics, election statistics, district city state statistics, tourism statistics very wide.
There is abundant data in every field or department. While collection of data is small task, interpreting and presenting it requires special skills. Hence a statistician needs to undergo fundamental training in analytical aspects. Statics is a branch of applied mathematics, but it’s not just about numbers. A statistician’s role is to give life to data.
Statistics is indispensable in this modern age aptly termed as “the age of planning”. Statistical data and technique of statistical analysis are immensely useful in solving economic problems such as wages, price, and time series analysis, demand analysis. It is an irreplaceable tool of production.
Various responsibilities of statistician include:
- Collecting information
- Developing newer and more efficient methods of collecting data.
- Organizing data
- Developing newer methods to analyze the information
Statisticians are also heavily involved in the development of products and quality factors. They often work for automobile, pharmaceutical, or computer software companies in trial testing and product evaluation. Apart from development, statisticians are also involved with the manufacturing, asset, liability and risk management and marketing department of firms.
There are some important field in statistics is commonly applied.
Mathematics: statistics is branch of applied mathematics, and also plays a central role in amongst all natural and social sciences. The methods of natural sciences are most reliable but conclusions draw from them are only probable, because they are based on incomplete evidence. Statistics helps in describing these measurements more precisely.
Banking: Statistics play and important role in banking. The banks make use of statistics for several purposes. The banks wok on the principle that all the people who deposit their money with the banks do not withdraw it at the same time.
Sate Management (Administration): statistics is essential for a country. Different policies of the government are based on statistics. Statistical data are now widely used in taking all administrative decisions. Most government organizations and agencies hire statisticians to evaluate population, demographic, and economic measurements. Statisticians use sampling techniques to determine sizes of relative populations and demographics, the unemployment rate literacy levels, malnutrition numbers, dowry death and many other sociological issues. For example if the government wants to revise the pay scale of employee in view of an increase in the living cost, statistical methods will be used to determine the rise in the cost of living.
Accounting and Auditing: Accounting is impossible without exactness. For decision making purposes, so much precision is not essential and the decision may be taken bases on approximation, known as statistics. In auditing sampling techniques are commonly used. And auditor determines the sample size of book to be audited based on error.
In Natural and Social Science: Statistics plays a vital role in almost all the natural and social sciences. Statistical methods are commonly used for analyzing the experiments’ results, testing their significance in Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Meteorology, and Research study of commerce, Sociology, Business, Public Administration, Communication and Information Technology etc.
In Astronomy: Astronomy is one of the oldest branches of Statistical Study; it deals with the measurement of distance, sizes, masses and densities of heavenly bodies by means of observations. During these measurements errors are unavoidable so most probable measurements are arrived at by using statistical methods. For example since the old days astronomers have used statistical methods for finding the movements of stars and the distance of the moon from the earth.
In Medicine: The Job of medical statisticians involves monitoring and surveillance of diseases and health patterns of the sample under study. It involves establishing the cause of disease or the factors associated with disease and death as well as analyzing studies to determine if new drugs and medical devices are safe and effective for pharmaceutical companies, medical research centers, or the food drug departments.
Agriculture and Environment: In the field of agriculture and agri-business, statisticians analyze data from agricultural experiments to increase productivity and yield. They also evaluate the environmental impact of air water and soil pollutions at a research laboratory, commercial environmental clean-up firm or for the Environmental Protection Agencies.
The minimum education qualification require in this field is a bachelor’s degree with a major in statistics or mathematics. To apply for an undergraduate course in statistics the students should have passed 10+2 or equivalent examination with minimum of 50% marks in the aggregate in physics, mathematics and any one of the following ; Chemistry, Statistics or Computer Science. Though the knowledge of mathematics is essential, statisticians should also have scientific knowledge and the ability to use computers to interpret the data.
Indian Institute of statistical science (ISI) offers courses in B. Statistics. (Hons) & Master’s in Statistics. For bachelor’s in 3 years B Stats(Hons) courses requirement is successful completion of higher secondary (10+2) or equivalent with Mathematics and English. Selection of candidate is base of merit as judged by their performance in written tests and interview conducted by the institute.
Specialized fields in statistics in India
Colleges/universities offer several specializations in statistics at undergraduate, post graduate and research level. They include 1. Actuarial sciences 2. Applied information economics 3. Biostatistics 4. Business Statistics 5. Data Analysis
- Statistics must possess good IT Skills, numerical skills, analytical skills.
- They should be able to assess results, analyses trends, applying statistic methodology to complex data.
- Statisticians need to be flexible and have a curious and disciplined mind.
- It is very important to have a good back ground in computer as statisticians use computer extensively.
They should also have intellectual creativity attention to detail problem solving skills logic and ability to take decisions independently.
Students with a degree in B.Sc. Statistics are eligible to apply for various jobs in banking, IT, quality control etc. They can even take up actuarial science as a specialization and join in various financial and share trading companies. Candidates with good flair and knowledge in statistics are huge demand in the present scenario.
A student with masters or PhD in statistics can apply for job such as business analyst, statistics lecturer, professor etc. They can also go for jobs like software engineer, investigative officer, statistic analyst researcher etc.
Statisticians can work as:
- Research analyst
- Data scientist
- Sport statistician
- Medical statistician
Jobs in Government Sector after Bachelor’s degree in statistics
Most government organizations and agencies hire statisticians to evaluate population, demographic and economic measurement. Many other environmental, scientific and agricultural agencies hire statisticians for similar type of work in their respective field. Even national defense organizations hire statisticians to assess weapon and strategy effectiveness.
In the government sector, UPSC carries out entrance exam as to recruit candidates to the Indian statistical services. For this Master of Statistics or mathematics is required to apply for this post. The private sector also require qualified statisticians in the insurance, IT and software fields. Some of the most renowned global statistical organizations are Euro-stat, IAOS, OECD, PARIS21 and UNESCO.
Some of the colleges offering courses in statistics
- Indian statistical institute (ISI) Bangalore
- Indian statistical institute (ISI) Delhi
- Indian statistical institute (ISI) Kolkata
- IIT Bombay
- IIT Kanpur,
- University of Delhi (Delhi)
- Loyola College Chennai
- Xavier College, Mumbai
- Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute (IASRI)